The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .

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I hope the result justifies their patience.

In order to extract the resources they need to survive, and to compel participation in repressive forces where neces- sary, states must embrace – that is, identify and gain enduring access to pasdport those from whom they hope to derive those resources. The proposed amendment provoked immediate and indignant objections from several members including Vergniaud, the Girondins’ “best orator”, 65 who regarded it as “infinitely immoral and unworthy of the Assembly to allow the municipal authori- ties to inscribe defamatory remarks in the passports.

John Torpey – Wikipedia

This gradual transformation facilitated a sea-change in con- ceptions of “internal” and “external” territory and thus in the nature of the restrictions on who could come and go, and with whose authoriza- tion.

It was during this period that the Gironde rose to prominence ot the leadership of Brissot, Vergniaud, and others, nivention “leftist” measures found increasing resonance in the Legislative Assembly. Michel Foucault extrapolated these basic insights into a nightmarish, dystopic, even tofpey vision of modern society as a “carceral” world pervaded by “gentle” rhe of discipline and control carried out under and through the watchful eye of the “individualizing gaze.

Freedom of Movement and citizenship in early nineteenthcentury. Achievement of this aim necessitated greater precision in identifying them. To these more strictly political considerations must be added Karl Polanyi’s compelling portrayal of the decisive role of the early modern state in weaving together local into national markets, a process that frequently involved the inventiln of the central state against fierce local resistance. Michael Mann is cor- rect that the “unusual strength of modern states is infrastructural,” 15 and their capacity to embrace their own subjects and to exclude unwanted others is the essence of that infrastructural power.

Slavery, even when it did not involve actual shackles, entailed that slaveholders held the power to grant their slaves the right to move. Comparative historical sociologyComparative religion [3].

The practice of issuing passports for groups of persons had, according to Broussonet, “given complete liberty to bad subjects. Torpey received his bachelor of arts degree from Amherst College in in political sciencebefore completing his Ph. By now the Assembly was churning with controversy, and a proposal to adopt Thuriot’s amendment by acclamation drove the house wild. Retrieved August 30, To paraphrase Marx, states make their own policy, “but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given, and trans- mitted” from the outside.


Torpeyy Greer has put it, this was “a prelude dolce to the later harsh leg- islation” on emigration and the emigres.

The eligibility for government services, the issuance of various licenses, the assessment of taxes, the right to vote, etc. While it may be difficult for states to control movement outside their own borders, this has scarcely kept them from trying to implement such controls, and hhe may be able to do so effectively mainly because of their capacity to distribute rewards and punishments at home when the traveler returns.

John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

In other words, documentary controls on movement were decisively bound up with the rights and duties that would eventually come to be associated with membership – citizenship – in the nation-state.

By the summer, with war against Pzssport and Austria heating up and the problem of emigration persisting, the Assembly on July adopted a further “Decree on Passports” entirely ojhn the issuance of such documents for departure from France, except to certain selected groups distinguished mainly by their need to travel abroad for commercial pur- poses.

By using this site, torepy agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. It is to the events of that upheaval, typically thought of as the “birth of the nation-state,” that pasport now turn. It examines how the concept of citizenship has been used to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and wel- fare.

Without the generosity of these peo- ple, this project would never have become more than an idle curiosity.

Antoine surrendered without a struggle, the revolution – at least by Georges Lefebvre’s reckoning – was over.

A revolution that commenced with the destruction of passports must insure a sufficient measure of freedom to travel, even in times of crisis. The welfare of the state is in this word: In the course of the debate, the Jacobin firebrand Jean-Francois Delacroix expanded upon this notion, suggesting that the passport, far from entailing a presumption of guilt, was in fact a “certificate of pro- bity” insuring the security of those traveling in France.


But this would take some time to achieve in practice, and began by facing a sharp challenge from the libertarian elements in the French Revolution. The clarification of the legal concept of the foreigner, whose movements were to be restricted as such, would first require much impassioned debate and bureaucratic develop- ment, and would ultimately be forged in the fires of military conflict. Accordingly, these rulers had a powerful interest in identifying and controlling the movements of their subjects.

Because the Catholic Church was principally concerned to tend to its own flock, however, the church registers frequently ignored the births of Jews, Protestants, and others.

John Torpey

Yet private entities have been reduced to the capacity of “sheriff s deputies” who participate in the regulation of movement at the behest of states.

A census was also to be kept so that the authorities would be in a position to inform the departmental directory about “the measures taken inventiln the municipali- ties to prevent pxssport of foreigners” and “to insure the most exact policing with respect to foreigners. The niceties of bureaucratic rationalization aside, however, much of this preoccupation with the details of passport procedure was, as a prac- tical matter, little more than eyewash.

Though not without flaws and loopholes, of course, such registration systems have gone a long way toward allowing states successfully to “embrace” their passporg and thus to acquire from them the resources they need to survive, as well as to exclude from among the beneficiaries of state largesse those groups deemed ineligible for benefits.

I have said relatively little about the postwar period, mainly because others have analyzed the process of European unification and its attendant relaxation of documentary restrictions on movement in greater detail than I could hope to do.

The revolution thus with- drew inventionn from the prospect of untrammeled freedom of movement that had been heralded in the work of passpirt Constituent Assembly. In doing so, they were responding to a considerable extent to the imperatives of territorial rule characteristic of modern states, as well as to the problem of “masterless men” 7 as personal freedom advanced.

Their views failed to carry the day.